Precision mechanics is a complex field, which requires attention both in the use of machine tools and in the acquisition of technical skills. One of the challenges of the job is mastering its specialised vocabulary, which is often unfamiliar to the uninitiated.
A glossary of the most commonly used terms in precision mechanics can help communication between novices and experts. Below is a collection of the most important words that you need to know in order to find your way around the sector.
Reaming is a finishing operation involving the hole. After drilling, a reamer is used to correct its shape and size, while ensuring that it is well polished.
A treatment used especially on aluminium alloys to create a protective layer of oxide on the surface of the metal. It increases corrosion resistance and improves the appearance of the treated part.
Operation aimed at enlarging the diameter of a hole that has already been made, through the use of chip removal tools.
Another machining operation with chip removal; broaching allows the creation of very complex profiles. The broach is passed through an existing hole to change its shape, making it square, hexagonal or grooved.
Burnishing is a surface treatment of metal, which changes its colouring. The process is based on an oxidation reaction, at the end of which the treated piece takes on a shiny blue-black colour.
This is one of the surface treatments of metal. Chrome plating uses electrochemical principles to coat a workpiece with a uniform layer of chrome to improve its strength.
Hobbing is used in gear production to produce straight or helical tooth profiles. It makes use of various tools, including the hob and hobbing knife.
Threading involves the inner or outer surface of a cylindrical element: in the first case it involves the formation of grooves, in the second of reliefs. The two threaded elements can thus be joined by helical screwing.
Drilling is defined as a machining operation that results in the creation of a hole.
Through milling, a chip removal takes place due to the rotary motion of the milling machine. The final effect depends on the type of milling cutter used, which may have different geometries.
Operation carried out on the lathe; knurling has the purpose of creating a knurl on a cylindrical surface. It consists of striations that may be parallel, barbed or inclined.
This superfinishing process aims to reduce the roughness of a surface to a minimum, using an abrasive action.
Surface treatment of metal; nickel plating aims to coat an object with a layer of nickel phosphor, to implement its qualities.
Polygon grinding is a process of chip removal using a rotary cutting tool. Small amounts of material are removed bit by bit until square or hexagonal plates are produced.
This is a superfinishing method that acts by deforming: through the pressure of conical rollers the surface is smoothed, with an increase in hardness and density.
Surface treatment that dulls the metal. It has aesthetic but also practical purposes, as it eliminates the reflective capacity of the treated surface.
Leads to the removal of excess material, also known as burr, from workpieces. It can be performed by means of deburring machines or chemically.
Machining with chip removal carried out by deburring machines, whereby circular slots are obtained.
Similar to broaching, this is a technique for modifying the internal surface of a hole, whether through or blind. It allows the creation of notches, grooved profiles and slots.
Acts for the removal of excess material and the subsequent creation of a conical housing for countersunk screws. The purpose is to prevent them from protruding beyond the surface.
Limit within which the change in a physical dimension of a part is acceptable. A minimal change in volume does not interfere with the functioning of the tools.
One of the most frequently performed machining operations; it is carried out with a lathe. There are various types of this tool (parallel, automatic, vertical, CNC, etc.), to be used according to the characteristics of the surface.
Treatments that act on the surface of the metal, aimed at improving its aesthetic appeal and performance.
Consist of subjecting alloys to hot-cold thermal cycles in order to implement their properties.
Cutting operation on the lathe that involves the detachment of a component from the bar.
Another surface treatment; in this case the metal part is covered with a zinc coating. The purpose of galvanising is to prevent galvanic corrosion.